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Best Practices for Effective Credit Control

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Maintaining a healthy cash flow is imperative for the survival and success of businesses, large and small. Yet, despite its importance, many businesses find themselves grappling with the challenge of late payments. The root cause? Ineffective credit control.

You can just imagine a scenario where invoices are stacking up, you have bills to pay, but the clients dragging their feet on settling accounts. This is a situation that breeds frustration and uncertainty, leaving your business vulnerable to financial instability. And from small enterprises to large corporations, this struggle is universal. Left unchecked, these issues can snowball into significant cash flow problems, hindering growth and jeopardising sustainability.

Effective credit control offers a solution to these common woes. There are systems and processes, businesses can implement to help them proactively manage their receivables, minimise payment delays, and maintain a steady influx of cash.

In this article, we’ll explore the fundamentals of effective credit control, giving you actionable strategies to help your business overcome these challenges and achieve financial stability.

What is credit control?

Credit control serves as the financial guardian of a company, ensuring that its cash flow remains steady and healthy. At its core, credit control encompasses the practices and policies implemented by businesses to manage their receivables and ensure timely payments from customers. Its purpose is twofold: to safeguard the financial stability of the company and to optimise its liquidity by minimising the risk of bad debts.

Key objectives of credit control

The primary objectives of credit control revolve around ensuring financial stability and minimising risks. Here are some of them;

Optimising Cash Flow – One of the main goals of credit control is to maintain a consistent and healthy cash flow. By ensuring that customers pay on time, businesses can meet their financial obligations, such as paying suppliers, employees, and operational expenses.

Minimising Bad Debts – Credit control aims to reduce the risk of bad debts by assessing the creditworthiness of customers before extending credit. This involves implementing credit checks, setting appropriate credit limits, and monitoring payment behaviour to identify potential defaults early on.

Protecting Profitability – Effective credit control helps safeguard the profitability of the business by minimising the impact of late payments and defaults. By reducing the number of overdue accounts and write-offs, businesses can preserve their profit margins and overall financial health.

Preserving Business Relationships – While enforcing payment terms, credit control also aims to maintain positive relationships with customers. Clear communication, fair treatment, and timely resolution of payment issues are essential to fostering trust and loyalty, preserving valuable business partnerships in the long run.

Enhancing Decision-Making – Credit control provides valuable insights into the financial health of customers and the overall market conditions. When you analyse payment patterns, credit risks, and market trends, you can make informed decisions about extending credit, managing cash flow, and mitigating risks effectively.

The current landscape of credit control in the UK

Credit management practices in the UK encompass a range of strategies aimed at ensuring timely payment from customers while minimising the risk of bad debts. These practices often include credit assessment procedures, setting credit limits, establishing clear payment terms, and implementing effective debt collection processes. Increasingly, businesses are also leveraging technology such as credit scoring algorithms and automated payment reminders to streamline their credit control operations.

The regulatory environment surrounding credit control in the UK is characterised by a robust framework of laws and regulations aimed at promoting transparency, fairness, and consumer protection in credit transactions. These regulations are designed to strike a balance between the interests of creditors, who seek timely repayment of debts, and debtors, who require adequate protection from unfair practices.

One of the cornerstone pieces of legislation in this area is the Consumer Credit Act (CCA). Enacted in 1974 and subsequently amended, the CCA governs consumer credit agreements and regulates the activities of lenders, including banks, credit card companies, and payday lenders. The Act imposes various requirements on creditors, such as providing clear and accurate information about credit terms, interest rates, and repayment schedules to consumers before entering into a credit agreement. It also grants consumers certain rights, such as the right to cancel certain credit agreements within a specified period and the right to challenge unfair contract terms.

In addition to the CCA, businesses operating in the UK credit industry must also comply with other relevant regulations, such as the Payment Services Regulations (PSRs). These regulations, introduced in 2017, aim to enhance the security and efficiency of payment services while ensuring consumer protection. Among other provisions, the PSRs require payment service providers to implement strong customer authentication measures to prevent fraud, provide clear information to consumers about payment transactions, and establish effective procedures for handling complaints and disputes.

Furthermore, businesses engaged in debt collection activities must adhere to the regulatory framework outlined in the Financial Conduct Authority’s (FCA) Consumer Credit Sourcebook (CONC). This comprehensive set of rules governs the conduct of firms involved in debt recovery, including requirements related to fair treatment of customers, communication practices, and handling of arrears and default situations.

What are some of the risks faced by businesses in managing credit?

Managing credit is crucial for businesses, but it comes with its own set of risks. Here are some common ones:

Credit default risk – This is the risk that customers will fail to pay their credit obligations on time or at all. Businesses extend credit to customers with the expectation of future payments, but if customers default, it can result in financial losses.

Market risk – Fluctuations in the market conditions can affect a customer’s ability to repay credit. Economic downturns, changes in interest rates, or shifts in consumer behaviour can impact the financial health of customers and their ability to meet credit obligations.

Credit concentration risk – Relying too heavily on a few customers for a significant portion of sales can expose a business to credit concentration risk. If one or more of these key customers experience financial difficulties or default, it can have a significant negative impact on the business’s revenue and cash flow.

Credit policy risk – Businesses need to establish clear credit policies to assess the creditworthiness of customers and determine appropriate credit terms. However, overly lenient credit policies can lead to increased default risk, while overly strict policies may result in lost sales opportunities.

Fraud risk – Businesses are susceptible to fraudulent activities, such as identity theft or falsified financial information, which can result in losses due to extended credit to unreliable customers.

Operational risk – Inefficient credit management processes, inadequate systems, or human error can lead to operational failures, such as errors in billing, invoicing, or collections, which can result in financial losses and damage to the business’s reputation.

Reputational risk – Poor credit management practices can harm a business’s reputation, leading to loss of customer trust and potential difficulty in attracting new customers or partners.

Regulatory risk – Non-compliance with laws and regulations governing credit management, such as fair lending practices or data protection laws, can result in legal penalties, fines, and reputational damage.

Best practices for effective credit control

There are a couple of best practices businesses can implement to maintain financial stability and address the various challenges they face. They include:

Credit Assessment and Risk Management

To ensure sound credit management, businesses should begin by conducting thorough credit assessments of their customers. This involves obtaining comprehensive credit reports, analysing financial statements, and seeking references to evaluate the creditworthiness of potential clients. By assessing factors such as payment history, financial stability, and industry reputation, businesses can make informed decisions about extending credit. Additionally, it’s essential to establish appropriate credit limits based on the customer’s creditworthiness and financial capacity. Regular monitoring of credit exposure is also critical to identify any emerging risks and take proactive measures to mitigate them, such as adjusting credit limits or implementing stricter payment terms.

Clear and Consistent Credit Policies

Clear and consistent credit policies lay the foundation for effective credit control. Businesses should define credit terms in detail, including payment deadlines, discounts for early payment, and penalties for late payment, and communicate these policies clearly to customers. Providing written documentation and verbal explanations also helps ensure that customers understand and adhere to credit terms. Business must be consistent in enforcing credit policies across all customers to avoid confusion, disputes, and perceived unfair treatment. By establishing transparent and standardised credit policies, businesses can promote trust and accountability in their relationships with customers.

Invoice Management and Billing Practices

Timely and accurate invoicing is crucial for maintaining a smooth cash flow and facilitating prompt payment from customers. Businesses should aim to generate and send invoices promptly upon delivering goods or services, ensuring accuracy in terms of quantities, prices, and payment terms. Including clear payment instructions on invoices, such as acceptable payment methods and contact information for inquiries, helps streamline the payment process and reduces the likelihood of delays. You should also aim to embrace electronic invoicing systems, which can help expedite the invoicing process, reduce paperwork, and improve payment processing efficiency.

Proactive Credit Control Procedures

Proactive credit control procedures are essential for minimising payment delays and reducing the risk of bad debts. Businesses should implement timely reminders to customers before payment deadlines to prompt timely payments and prevent overdue accounts. These reminders should be polite yet firm, clearly indicating the consequences of late payment and the importance of adhering to credit terms. In addition, businesses should establish escalation procedures for handling overdue accounts, including follow-up calls, emails, and letters, and escalate to collections as necessary. Offering payment incentives, such as discounts for early payment or installment options for large invoices, can also encourage prompt payment and foster positive customer relationships.

Customer Relationship Management

Maintaining open and transparent communication with customers is key to effective credit management. Businesses should foster positive relationships with customers by addressing inquiries promptly, providing assistance when needed, and demonstrating a willingness to accommodate reasonable requests. Also, prompt resolution of disputes or discrepancies in invoices or payment terms is essential to prevent delays in payment and maintain customer satisfaction. Business owners should regularly review customer accounts allows businesses to assess payment behaviour, identify any emerging issues, and proactively address concerns or opportunities for improvement.

Utilise Technology and Automation

Leveraging technology and automation can streamline credit management processes and enhance efficiency. With that said, investing in credit management software or customer relationship management (CRM) systems enables businesses to automate credit assessment, invoicing, payment reminders, and reporting. These tools can help businesses save time and resources, reduce manual errors, and improve overall productivity. Additionally, using data analytics tools allows businesses to analyse payment trends, identify patterns, and make data-driven decisions to optimise credit control strategies and minimise risks effectively.

Regular Monitoring and Review

Owners should regularly monitor and review their credit control processes, to be able to identify areas for improvement and adapt to changing business environments. They should regularly monitor accounts receivable aging reports to track payment statuses, identify overdue accounts, and prioritise follow-up actions. Conducting periodic reviews of credit policies, procedures, and performance metrics enables businesses to assess effectiveness, identify any gaps or deficiencies, and implement necessary adjustments. Ultimately, by staying proactive and responsive to changing circumstances, businesses can optimise their credit control practices and maintain financial stability in the long term.

How to track and measure the effectiveness of their credit control processes

Knowing the effectiveness of your credit control processes is essential for identifying areas for improvement, optimising performance, and ensuring financial stability. Here is how you can track and measure this;

Establish Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Define clear and relevant KPIs that align with the goals and objectives of credit control processes. Common KPIs include:

  • Days Sales Outstanding (DSO): Measures the average number of days it takes to collect payment from customers.
  • Aging of Receivables – Tracks the distribution of outstanding receivables by age categories (e.g., current, 30 days overdue, 60 days overdue).
  • Bad Debt Ratio – Calculates the percentage of total outstanding receivables that are unlikely to be collected.
  • Customer Payment Performance – Evaluates the percentage of customers paying on time versus those paying late.

Utilise Reporting and Analytics Tools

Implement reporting and analytics tools to gather relevant data and generate actionable insights. Use accounting software, customer relationship management (CRM) systems, or specialised credit management software to track and analyse key metrics. Customise reports to provide visibility into credit performance over time and across different customer segments.

Regularly Monitor and Review Performance

Establish a schedule for regularly monitoring and reviewing credit control performance. Conduct periodic reviews to assess progress towards KPIs, identify trends or patterns, and pinpoint areas requiring attention. Compare current performance against historical data and industry benchmarks to gauge effectiveness.

How often should I review credit policies and procedures?

  • Annually: Conduct a comprehensive review of your credit policies and procedures at least once a year. This allows you to assess their effectiveness, identify any areas for improvement, and make necessary updates to keep them aligned with your business goals and objectives.
  • Quarterly or semi-annually: For businesses with high transaction volumes or significant changes in their operating environment, consider conducting more frequent reviews, such as quarterly or semi-annually. This ensures that any emerging issues or trends can be addressed in a timely manner.
  • As needed: In addition to scheduled reviews, be prepared to review your credit policies and procedures whenever significant changes occur, such as changes in regulations, shifts in market conditions, or changes in your customer base. These ad-hoc reviews help ensure that your policies remain relevant and responsive to evolving circumstances.
  • After significant events: After experiencing significant credit-related events, such as a high rate of delinquencies, major changes in customer payment behaviour, or instances of fraud, it’s important to conduct a thorough review of your credit policies and procedures to identify any weaknesses or gaps that may have contributed to the event.
  • Feedback from stakeholders: Solicit feedback from key stakeholders, such as credit managers, sales teams, finance staff, and customers, to gather insights on the effectiveness of your credit policies and procedures. Their input can help identify areas for improvement and inform future updates.

Conduct Aging Analysis of Receivables

Perform aging analysis of receivables to track the distribution of outstanding invoices by age categories. Identify trends in overdue accounts and take appropriate actions to address them. Segment receivables by customer, product/service, or sales channel to gain insights into payment behaviour and credit risk.

Evaluate Customer Payment Behaviour

Analyse customer payment behaviour to identify trends and patterns. Assess the percentage of customers paying on time versus those consistently paying late. Segment customers based on payment performance and credit risk profile to tailor credit control strategies accordingly.

Assess Collection Efficiency and Effectiveness

Evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of collection efforts. Monitor the percentage of overdue accounts successfully collected within specified timeframes. Assess the success rate of collection activities, such as reminder letters, calls, or legal actions, in recovering outstanding debts.

Solicit Feedback from Stakeholders

Seek feedback from internal stakeholders, such as credit managers, finance teams, and customer service representatives, about the effectiveness of credit control processes. Solicit input from external stakeholders, including customers and suppliers, to gain insights into their experiences and perceptions.

Benchmark Against Industry Standards

Benchmark credit control performance against industry standards and best practices. Participate in industry associations, forums, or benchmarking studies to gain insights into leading practices and compare performance with peers or competitors.

Implement Continuous Improvement Initiatives

Identify opportunities for improvement based on performance data and stakeholder feedback. Implement continuous improvement initiatives to address gaps, streamline processes, and enhance efficiency and effectiveness. Monitor the impact of changes over time and adjust strategies as needed.

Communicate Results and Celebrate Successes

Communicate credit control performance results and achievements to relevant stakeholders within the organisation. Celebrate successes and recognise contributions from individuals or teams involved in credit management. Foster a culture of accountability, collaboration, and continuous improvement.

What should I do if a customer consistently fails to pay their invoices?

Dealing with customers who consistently fail to pay their invoices can be frustrating. Here are some steps you can take to address the situation

Send reminders – Start by sending polite reminders to the customer about the outstanding invoices. Sometimes, customers may simply forget to pay or may have overlooked the invoices.

Follow up with phone calls or emails – If reminders don’t work, follow up with phone calls or emails to discuss the outstanding invoices. Sometimes, direct communication can help resolve the issue.

Set up a payment plan – If the customer is facing financial difficulties, consider offering a payment plan to help them pay off the outstanding balance in installments. This shows goodwill on your part while still ensuring you receive payment.

Apply late fees – Make sure your invoices clearly state your payment terms and any late fees that may apply. If the customer consistently fails to pay on time, apply late fees as stated in your terms and conditions.

Escalate the matter – If the customer continues to ignore your attempts to collect payment, consider escalating the matter by involving a collections agency or seeking legal advice. However, be aware of the potential costs and risks associated with these actions.

Evaluate the relationship – Consider whether the customer is worth retaining if they consistently fail to pay their invoices. It may be necessary to terminate the business relationship if it becomes clear that they are not reliable in terms of payment.

Review your invoicing process – Take a look at your invoicing process to see if there are any improvements that can be made to prevent similar issues in the future. This could include implementing stricter payment terms, sending invoices more promptly, or using automated invoicing systems.


In conclusion, effective credit control is not just about chasing payments or enforcing strict policies; it’s about striking a balance between financial prudence and customer relationships. In the dynamic landscape of the UK business environment, mastering credit control is essential for maintaining cash flow, minimising bad debts, and ensuring long-term sustainability. By implementing clear credit practices, leveraging technology, and fostering open communication with customers, you will be able to navigate the complexities of credit management with confidence.

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